Designing A Software By Naming ThingsClermont-Fd Area, France
There are only two hard things in Computer Science: cache invalidation and naming things.
Naming things is hard, that's right, but naming things by their right names is even harder!
When you start writing a new application, the first step is often to rely on some UML diagrams. It allows you to think before to code, what a nice idea!
Even if use cases or user stories are essential, a class diagram is probably the most useful UML diagram. A first step can be to find packages names (more or less sub-namespaces), and to connect them. It will give you the main components of your application like the controllers, the services, the model, or the configuration part for instance. It's quite easy to separate concerns at this level. If you use the well-known Model View Controller design pattern, you almost ever know your packages.
Once you've defined your packages, you have to find names for your classes. To help you finding the right names, you can write interfaces first. An interface describes a contract between two entities. This is not related to naming, but if you start by writing interfaces, you start by thinking about interactions between your components. Program to interface is a nice way to design an application, and reduces coupling but it's not the purpose of this post.
My Golden Rule is: if you're not able to find a name for a class, then ask yourself if this class makes sense, or if you can decouple things a bit more.
A wrong name or a non-explicit name often leads to errors. If you're not satisfied with your naming, then think again because you probably missed something. Inspire yourself by reading good code, thanks to GitHub, it's easy to browse awesome code. As a PHP developer, I often use Symfony2 naming in my own projects.
By following these advices, you'll build a software with a better separation of concerns, and each component will be decoupled, and will own its own logic, nothing more. That way, you'll be able to unit test your application without any effort. And, as you have a good separation of concerns, each unit test can cover a use case.
This is my last point, always write unit tests that make sense, and think them as use cases. Take a look
at the Propel2 test suite, each test
method has a readable name which explains a use case:
testIsValidReturnsFalseIfNoUserFound() is really
explicit for instance. Don't forget, the best documentation you can write is tests.