⚠️ This content has been written a long time ago. As such, it might not reflect my current thoughts anymore. I keep this page online because it might still contain valid information.

On Creating Pull Requests

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2015-11-29 // I added a note on PR title prefixes thanks to @lsmith.

As a maintainer of various Open Source projects, I use to manage quite a lot of issues and Pull Requests (PRs). While issues are often well-written, I must say that most of the Pull Requests I see are not.

Three years ago, I started contributing on Open Source. It took me some time to release my own projects, and even more time to manage projects that people actually used. I was so happy that I accepted almost all Pull Requests, often by reworking them on my own. I thought it was a wise decision, but I was wrong.

Creating a Pull Request to fix a bug or to implement a new feature in a project is awesome. Really. From a maintainer point of view (or maybe just mine), it is a gift. Any contribution to an Open Source project is a way to thank its author.

However, it does not mean that you, as a contributor, don’t have to follow a couple of rules to get your work merged at some point. You may think that spending time on fixing a bug is enough, but it is actually half the work you have to do while contributing to any Open Source project. You always have to:

  • work on the project;
  • fit the project’s philosophy.

The latest point includes coding standards, documentation, commit messages, and any other things related to the targeted project. Thanks to GitHub, these rules may be found in a CONTRIBUTING file. Mine (for PHP projects) contains the following set of rules:


You MUST follow the PSR-1 and PSR-2. If you don’t know about any of them, you should really read the recommendations. Can’t wait? Use the PHP-CS-Fixer tool.

You MUST run the test suite.

You MUST write (or update) unit tests.

You SHOULD write documentation.

Please, write commit messages that make sense, and rebase your branch before submitting your Pull Request.

One may ask you to squash your commits too. This is used to “clean” your Pull Request before merging it (we don’t want commits such as fix tests, fix 2, fix 3, etc.).

Also, while creating your Pull Request on GitHub, you MUST write a description which gives the context and/or explains why you are creating it.

Hopefully, it is crystal clear. If it is not, please leave a comment.

First, I describe the Coding Standards (CS) I use in the project. Then, I expect people to run the test suite, and to write tests to prove the bug’s existence, but also to prove that the fix works. Basically, no test, no merge. If you can’t come up with a fix, create a Pull Request with a failing test case.

If you want your patch to be merged, you should send clean commits. Most of the time, a single commit including the fix, some tests, and an update on the documentation is enough. Once you have hacked on the project, squash your commits and send the result as a single commit.

Last sentence is about the Pull Request itself, the one you will create on GitHub. Most of the time, people don’t write any description. Please, start writing Pull Request descriptions, now! Give the context such as the “why” (you need this feature) or the “how” (you found the bug you fixed).

Also, the title of your Pull Request is important. Write a short yet clear sentence giving the insight of your Pull Request. It is common to add a prefix to the title, such as: [WIP], which stands for Work In Progress; [POC] (Proof Of Concept), [WCM] (Waiting Code Merge), etc.

If you follow these rules, then maintainers will focus on the code while reviewing your Pull Request and will be able to quickly merge it, rather than wasting their time on trying to get something “mergeable”.

Last but not the least, you may get a lot of feedback. Please, support your Pull Request until it gets merged. Don’t disappear!

Thank you my heroes! ♥


  • Follow the rules of the project you are contributing to;
  • Attach clean commits to your Pull Request (rebase may help);
  • Write a description in your Pull Request, explaining the context.
  • More information at: Git & GitHub & OpenSource

Feel free to fork and edit this post if you find a typo, thank you so much! This post is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-SA 4.0) license.

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